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39 Laws of Shabbat

There are thirty-nine general categories of labor that are forbidden on Shabbat. Each of these categories include a range of derivative laws and activities, some of which are described in "The Shabbat Laws." The melachot are generally divided into six groups, classified according to the Mishkan's activities with which they are associated.

 

The 39 Melachot

 

The Order of Bread

1

Plowing

"Choreish"

"חורש"

Digging, raking, dragging chairs.

2

Sowing

"Zoraya"

"זורע"

Planting, fertilizing, watering.

3

Reaping

"Kotzair"

"קוצר"

Picking fruit, flowers.

4

Gathering

"M’amer"

"מעמר"

Collecting fallen fruit, raking leaves.

5

Thres hing

"Dash"

"דש"

Husking corn, squeezing fruit.

6

Winnowing

"Zoreh"

"זורה"

Arerosol Can.

7

Sorting

"Borer"

"בורר"

Removal of bad fruit, bones.

8

Grinding

"Tochain"

"טוחן"

Grinding coffee, pepper, minceing.

9

Sifting

"Tochain"

"מרקד"

Sifting with a utensil.

10

Amalgamation

"Lash"

"לש"

Making paste, dough.

11

Baking/Cooking

"Bishul/Ofeh"

"בישול/אופה"

Cooking, baking, frying, reheating.

         

Making Clothes

12

Shearing

"Gozez"

"גוזז"

Removing wool, cutting nails.

13

Scouring

"Melabein"

"מלבן"

Laundering, bleaching.

14

Combing

"Menapeitz"

"מנפץ"

Separating fibers. Combing a wig.

15

Dyeing

"Tzovea"

"צובע"

Coloring, painting, food coloring.

16

Spinning

"Toveh"

"טווה"

Making yarn, wicks, tzitzit.

17

Warping

"Maisach"

"מיסך"

Creating skeleton of garment.

18

Constructing 2 Loops

"Oseh Shtei"

"עושה שתי בתי"

Making netting.

19

Weaving

"Oreig"

"אורג"

Basket weaving.

20

Unravelling

"Potzea"

"פוצע"

Pulling a loose thread.

21

Tying

"Koshair"

"קושר"

Making permanent knots.

22

Untying

"Matir"

"מתיר"

Untying permanent knots.

23

Sewing

"Tofair"

"תופר"

Sewing, stapling.

24

Tearing

"Koraya"

"קורע"

Tearing a fabric to be sewn.

   

9 Steps for Writing

25

Trapping

"Tzad"

"צד"

Trapping a wild/stray animal.

26

Slaughtering

"Shochait"

"שוחט"

Killing, spreading poison, causing bleeding.

27

Flaying

"Mafshit"

"מפשט"

Removing animal skin.

28

Tanning

"M’abaid"

"מעבד"

Tanning, poilishing.

29

Smoothing

"Memachaik"

"ממחק"

Sanding, smoothing, appling creams.

30

Scoring

"Mes artait"

"משרטט"

Scoring, folding paper for cutting.

31

Measured Cutting

"Mechataich"

"מחטך"

Cutting non-food to specific size.

32

Writing

"Kotaiv"

"כותב"

Writing a meaningful character.

33

Erasing

"Mochaik"

"מוחק"

Erasing a meaningful symbol.

         

6 Steps of Building a House

34

Building

"Boneh"

"בונה"

Creating shelter, building.

35

Demolishing

"Sotair"

"סותר"

Contructive destruction.

36

Extinguishing

"Mechabeh"

"מכבה"

Extinguishing a flame.

37

Kindling

"Mavir"

"מבעיר"

Striking a match, turning on oven, lights.

38

Final Hammer Blow

"Makeh b’Fatish"

"מכה בפטיש"

Acts of completion. (Very ambiguous).

39

Transferring

"Hotza’ah"

"הוצאה"

Carrying from one domain to another.

 

Mon, December 5 2022 11 Kislev 5783